Although the development of translation theory and machine translation technology has given an opportunity to speak about phrases, sentences and texts instead of terms, actually improving the usability of the result, there is still no human-like intellect involved to interpret the text meaning; in a finished translation, it is strikingly disturbing. We just have to live with it Dichotomies in translation typologies Earlier research on this topic has nearly exclusively been conceptual, because of the difficulties associated with obtaining empirical evidence on such a subject see Chapter 2, Research programme and methodological considerations, page The opposite view I have here called instrumentalist and it can be summarised in the statement that language is just a tool. Table 1 is an attempt at summarising these dichotomies. For if you look at them you will not see something that is common to all, but similarities, relationships, and a whole series of them at that. It is normal for organisations to impose non-disclosure agreements on employees and subcontractors with such functions, covering not only the content of translated texts which would be natural , but also working processes, style guides, evaluation criteria, and in extreme cases also the very fact of being in a contractual relationship with this organisation.

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Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering Berkley Binary Option Trading Company from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave.

I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Rute Costa for her attention to detail in reviewing the dissertation and the long discussions we have had on mutually interesting topics in terminology and elsewhere. Henning Bergenholtz and Enn Veldi for taking the time to express disagreement with my views, thereby at first forcing me to look for more arguments, but then also helping me understand the overall futility of arguing about religious topics.

At the end of the day, any religion is a good religion for its followers. Tallinn University for giving me the opportunity to establish a translation MA programme there in and have my own way in determining its contents.

Many of the ideas presented in the dissertation were tested there, as well as some that didn t pass the test and therefore didn t make it into the text. Also the University of Tartu for giving me considerable freedom in teaching the terminology course for their translation students.

Students in terminology and translation classes and participants of commercial training events for arguing and posing tough questions. Colleagues at the Graduate School of Linguistics and Language Technology for creating a stimulating academic environment. I will miss you and the graduate school events. An instrumental model of translation The model Discussion Evaluation system Responses to common objections The translator is not allowed to interfere with the source text How does the translator know what the author really meant?

Opponents used the same method, and discussions took us nowhere. In this dissertation, the aim is to provide at least some empirical data, as well as generalise the discussion from the term level to any amount of text. I also try to answer the objections received to my views so far.

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The dissertation is presented in English to subject its claims to the scrutiny of a potentially larger audience. As an acknowledgment of the threats of academic globalisation to small language communities like Estonian, and a display of loyalty to my mother tongue, I have added an extensive Estonian summary.

Parts of the dissertation, mainly chapters 3 and 4, were originally written in Estonian, the former published as Tavast and the latter submitted for publication Tavast forthcoming; older dictionary data also from Tavastand translated into English by Annika Steinberg from NU tekstiabi OÜ. I did my best to edit the translations to ensure understandability, and any shortcomings in this respect are of course my responsibility.

The dissertation is structured as follows. Chapter 1, Motivation, explains the reasons for getting involved with this topic, and gives some background from linguistics, translation studies and terminology or specialised lexicographyas well as language philosophy.

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The crucial question is: what is language and how or why is it possible that it functions the way it does? The view that I have here called linguacentric, starts from the biblical truth: first, there was the word. Its main consequence is that words, phrases, sentences, texts and other instances of language use have meanings as such, on their own, without the need for involving any humans.

These expressions with their meanings can then serve as the object of study and as the basis for decisions made in multilingual communication, for instance about the suitability 1 Vello Hanson, Arvi Tavast, Arvutikasutaja sõnastik. Teine, täiendatud ja parandatud trükk.

Kolmas, täiendatud ja parandatud trükk. Tallinn: Ilo, 11 of a target language equivalent. The view also allows making grammaticality or acceptability judgements, including negative judgements about other people s usage.

The opposite view I have here called instrumentalist and it can be summarised in the statement that language is just a tool.

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Human beings have certain needs reflection, self-expression, communication, maintenance of social links, etc. A very advanced and efficient tool, but certainly not the only one. The tool is used in whatever way that best suits the task at hand, e.

The consequence is that language expressions do not have any meaning in the absence of a competent human interpreter. Since no two interpreters are exactly alike, there is variation also in the interpretations, and it is very difficult, if not impossible, to say anything about choices made in multilingual communication situations without involving extralinguistic empirical methods like judging the wording of an advertisement by looking at the sales figures of the advertised product.

This view places the emphasis Berkley Binary Option Trading Company people, including mediators in multilingual situations, which also motivates the heading of this dissertation. It is hypothesized that the two worldviews are causally related to decisions made in practical multilingual specialised communication, and that the instrumental view results in better decisions. Testing a hypothesis of this generality is understandably a tall order.

Chapter 2, Research programme and methodological considerations, proposes a research programme and details the parts of the programme that are undertaken in this dissertation, and the methodology used for each of them. Chapter 3, Pilot study, presents the results of a pilot study conducted between and to test the possibility of obtaining empirical results on a topic of worldviews, and to prepare for the main study.

Two types multilingual specialised communication are discussed: dictionary compilation and translation. Chapter 4, Compilation of specialised dictionaries, first presents a review of specialised dictionaries published between and and containing Estonian as one of the languages. The emphasis is on the compilation method and its influence on the types of internal inconsistencies that can be found in the dictionary.

Out of the two main methods, semasiology corresponding to linguacentrism and onomasiology corresponding to instrumentalismthe latter has been subject to frequent misunderstandings. In an attempt to clear these, a classification of onomasiologies is presented. One of the types in the classification, technical onomasiology, is proposed as a preventive measure for a range of inconsistencies now found in semasiologically compiled dictionaries.

The proposed method was tested in a relatively large dictionary project inwhich is described as a case study. The translation analysis concentrates on features of the target text that reveal implicit assumptions on the linguacentrism-instrumentalism scale, avoiding value judgements and matters of taste as much as possible. The aim is to determine whether translators actually behave in translations according to the attitudes that they verbalise when prompted.

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The next thing to investigate is translation customer requirements. These are presented in the form of a survey of translation service providers in Estonia, and a case study involving four large international end customers from the information and communication technology field and the public sector. The translation chapter also proposes an instrumentalist model of the translation process. Machine translation and the kind of human translation expected by translation customers are situated in the model, which, in addition to trying to explain the process, also seeks to advance translation training by indicating the areas that need developing the most.

The training aspect also includes recommendations for a translation evaluation system capable of efficiently providing formative assessment of school assignments. When concepts or word meanings are discussed, they are not highlighted in any way, because this is normal language use non-highlighted words always refer to concepts or something similar in the mind of the reader, depending on the theory e.

So talking about trees means exactly that: talking about trees.

I wish to express gratitude to the following people and organisations: My supervisor Mati Erelt for the confidence of agreeing to supervise such a topic and allowing me to work on it in my erratic way. Ilona Tragel for her down-to-earth advice on how a thesis really should be written and for actually ordering me to get on with it.

Talking about trees means talking about the word consisting of the letters t, r, e, e, s. Language codes and abbreviations The following abbreviations and ISO language codes are used in the dictionary list in Appendix 1. Object of study and hypothesis The field under discussion is multilingual specialised communication in the broadest possible sense, including all conceivable types of using more than one language in a professional setting.

This specifically includes specialised translation, compilation and use of specialised dictionaries, and terminology discussions. The reason for such broad generalisation is that all these areas seem to be affected by similar quality and efficiency problems, and that the cause for these problems also seems to be the same, if generalised to a sufficient degree: the linguacentric worldview.

In order to discuss these areas of multilingual specialised communication together, another generalisation needs to be made about the objective for language use in instrumentalism.

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If language is a tool with a purpose, then there must be some purpose that this tool is for. In the discussion below, this purpose is generalised to mean whatever goes on in the human head relevant to the particular communication situation. In terminology, this is the concept in the mind of a communicator that a term is understood to designate, and in translation, this is the communicative intention that a communicator either expresses or understands another communicator to be expressing.

Coining an artificial umbrella term for these two would be unjustified, because it fulfils the purposes of this dissertation to call them concepts and communicative intentions, respectively, just bearing in mind that they occupy the same place in the general model under discussion.

Since coming to the above generalised understanding, it has been my aim to convince both practitioners and theorists that a change in attitudes about multilingual specialised communication, from linguacentrism towards instrumentalism, would noticeably improve practical results in the field.

Like all religious topics, the opposition between linguacentrism and instrumentalism is very difficult to argue about, if both sides base their arguments exclusively on conceptual analysis. This dissertation aims to provide some empirical evidence in support of instrumentalism, namely of the hypothesis that believing in instrumentalism gives better practical results in multilingual specialised communication.

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Such ambitious wording of the aim immediately raises the question about which results are better. It is not within the scope of this work to give a definitive answer to the age-old question of how to recognize a good translation or dictionary. Instead, a research programme is proposed Chapter 2 and a set of smaller and less controversial subtopics from that programme are addressed in more detail. Choices made about these dichotomies in practical communication situations are not independent phenomena, but consequences of the a linguacentric or b instrumental worldview that one believes in.

The instrumental worldview results in choices that differ from those based on linguacentrism in the following ways Dictionaries and translations are internally more consistent due to a systematic and calculated treatment of source language synonyms, homonyms, polysemes and co-hyponyms Translations conform better to customer requirements as these can be observed in today s mainstream translation market, and better fulfil their intended purpose.

This may seem a far-fetched philosophical question, too abstract to be of interest for practitioners, but in fact it may have direct consequences for everyday decisions in activities like terminology, translation or language planning. A tool with a purpose, be it special or general. Of course, not every person you meet in town would really be a self-confessed functionalist, instrumentalist or onomasiologist.


The tool for communication answer is most probably nothing more than a catch phrase remaining in people s memories from some explicit language instruction, usually during general education.

Mainstream linguistics has held the opposite view that language is an abstract system independent of any applications Chomsky ; the instrumental view of language as essentially a means of communication has even been called a vulgar distortion Chomsky Regardless of the catch phrase, the school system is also implicitly and exclusively based on the belief that language is the primary thing that exists in the world.

First, there was the word, and any meanings or usages or purposes thereof can only come later and be always secondary to the word. Not only do language classes quite naturally deal with words and their meanings, completely avoiding any mentioning of concepts and their designations as an alternative worldview. Even subjects as remote from language as physics talk about learning new terms and their meanings. There is even a physics textbook starting with the statement that Füüsikas on kolm peamist oskussõnade klassi: füüsikalised kehad ehk lühemalt kehadfüüsikalised nähtused ehk lühemalt nähtused ja füüsikalised suurused ehk lühemalt suurused 2 Pärtel So, term is the root generic concept of everything that exists, and physics therefore a subfield of linguistics.

At first sight, linguists might take this as a compliment, but a closer look will reveal the worrying consequences it has when people with such schooling start writing, translating and reading user manuals or dictionaries or legislation. People do not distinguish between words and their meanings, or terms and concepts. The word is the meaning. The linguistic sign consists of the signifier and the signified, i.

The signified cannot exist without the signifier Saussure and thinking without language is just an amorphous mass ibid. This influence of Saussure s semiotics is still strong in the mainstream linguistics taught in schools and has through that channel also found its way into the worldview of many non-linguists. An important consequence is that expressions are believed to have some intrinsic meaning, independent of speakers and hearers.

Some constant and undisputable true meaning is attributed to expressions, be it legislative texts, translation originals or new term candidates. It is not important what the speaker meant when uttering the words; it is not important how hearers in Berkley Binary Option Trading Company target 2 There are three main classes of terms in physics: physical objects objects for shortphysical phenomena phenomena for short and physical quantities quantities for short.

Exclusive attention goes to finding the true meaning of the words. But where are those intrinsic or true meanings located if not in the minds of people? For it is simply a physical fact that acoustic events possess only acoustic properties Carr 92, original emphasis and the same applies for written texts.

It has been argued that they are in the abstract space together with numbers, rules of logic and the like. This is not a place for discussing whether rules of logic existed before humans became aware of them, but consider a simpler example: rules of football. It would seem Berkley Binary Option Trading Company there is a distinction between those sets of rules in that the latter could easily be different if practitioners of that sport so decided, and they actually do change over time.

So does language, including semantics, as many people would agree but how can the meanings be intrinsic then, or which version of them is intrinsic? As Loxley 39 points out, linguistic rules can be broken and the result is still language. It happens every day that people knowingly, purposefully and successfully use expressions in novel ways.

Influential individuals can modify the public opinion about expression meaning by a single utterance, like the use of axis of evil by President George W.