Toidu kaasostu ja kulleriteenuse sektori tähtsuse suurenemisega on esile kerkinud mitmeid jätkusuutlikkusega seotud probleeme, sealhulgas ka ühekordselt kasutatavate konteinerite kasutamine, mille taaskasutamise võimalused on väga väikesed. During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. Furthermore, motors with the base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. In contrast, motors containing the base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. In order to reduce the generation of waste from disposable packaging, a directive of the European Parliament and Council was also passed, according to which a large part of disposable plastic products will be banned from the market in European Union at the beginning of In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful molecular motor.

Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. Early studies initially isolated a base form domain I only that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II.

Paljud ettevõtted on täielikult või suuremas osas loobunud ühekordse plastiku kasutamisest ning mitmed ettevõtted on avatud ka innovaatilistematele alternatiivide kasutamisele kaasa müüdava toidu pakendamisel. Jätkusuutlikkus on uuringus osalenud ettevõtetes oluline märksõna, kuid oli ootuspärane, et sama oluliseks jäävad siiski ka kasumlikkus ja toidu kvaliteedi säilimine protsessi lõpuni välja. Autori peamine soovitus ettevõtetele on olla rohkem avatud innovaatiistele lahendustele ning käia kaasas ka teadliku tarbija ootustega.

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Samuti soovitab autor leida rohkem võimalusi sellistes uudsetes lahendustes, mis esmapilgul ei paista ettevõttele kõige kasumlikumad. Currently, food delivery is one of the most popular online mediation platform services known as online-to-offline commerceand Wolt is one such platform in Estonia. The growing importance of the takeaway food and courier sectors has raised a number of sustainability issues, including the use of single-use containers, which have very little potential for re-use.

In order to reduce the generation of waste from disposable packaging, a directive of the European Parliament and Council was also passed, according to which a large part of disposable plastic products will be banned from the market in European Union at the beginning of Consequently, the aim of the author is to find out the current practices of Wolt's partners in packaging the takeaway food and their readiness to replace disposable packaging with a more environmentally friendly alternative.

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In the theoretical part of the work, the author describes the activities of the European Union to reduce waste generation and the different reasons why the use of packaging needs to be regulated at the European Union level. The author also provides an overview of various possible solutions that catering companies could use to reduce the negative effects of the amendment on the company's operations based on scientific sources.

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In order to find out what are the habits of catering companies in the packaging of the food they sell and what is their readiness to use more sustainable alternatives in the packaging of food, the author conducted a survey among Wolt partners.

The results of the study revealed that for the vast majority of Wolt partners who participated in the study, the sustainability of disposable packaging is rather important today.

Praegu on toidu kohalevedu üks kõige populaarsem vahendusplatvormide teenus ning Eestis on üheks selliseks platvormiks Wolt.

In contrast, motors containing the base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages.

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Furthermore, motors with the base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events.

These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation.

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Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages.