In terms of infrastructure crossing behavior, in most of the observations For colliding species, among 28 cases recorded from the cabin, The system could not operate at nighttime with the front lights of the train, thus leaving a full gap of knowledge for this situation.
However, high-speed trains produce unknown avian mortality due to birds using the railway and being unable to avoid approaching trains. Safety and logistic difficulties have precluded until now mortality estimation in railways through carcass removal, but information technologies can overcome such problems. We present the results obtained with an experimental on-board system to record bird-train collisions composed by a frontal recording camera, a GPS navigation system and a data storage unit.
An observer standing in the cabin behind the driver controlled the system and filled out a form with data of collisions and bird observations in front of the train.
Photographs of the train front taken before and after each journey were used to improve the record of killed birds. Trains running the The review of videos produced 1, bird observations, Recordings also showed that Mortality in the railway was estimated to be Our results are the first published estimation of bird mortality in a HSR and show the potential of information technologies to yield useful data for monitoring the impact of trains on birds Suured delta aktsiate tehingud on-board recording systems.
Moreover, recordings point to the use of the infrastructure by birds as a key issue leading to bird train-kill. Introduction Railway has substantial growth potential as a mode of transportation given its energy efficiency, low emissions, and low perceived environmental impact relative to the other alternatives Profillidis et al. Economic development is closely linked to increased mobility of people and goods, which can drive continued global growth of passengers, goods volumes, and length of transportation infrastructure Chapman, ; Dritsaki and Dritsaki, However, to address environmental effects, especially energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, economic development strategies must define transportation plans that maximize benefits and minimize environmental costs EC, ; Dulac, ; Liu et al.
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Railroad transportation is thus becoming an outstanding component of such strategies Dulac, ; UIC, High-speed railways HSRs are key to the development of high-capacity transportation networks that can compete successfully with air transport for medium distances.
For instance, the European Union is planning to double the size of its HSR network byaiming for the majority of passenger travel to occur by rail by that time EC, For routes in which Raptor Trading System Inc Columbia MD trains compete directly with air travel, such as, between Madrid and Barcelona, Spain kmonce trains are operational, they partially absorb passengers from other modes of transportation Castillo-Manzano et al.
Medium term, supply and demand patterns for air travel and HSRs adapt to the new market conditions Pellegrini and Rodriguez, and the disadvantages of each mode of transportation are reduced if demand is stable Albalate et al. However, HSR planning faces a key environmental challenge: practically nothing is known regarding the potential environmental effects of HSRs beyond pollution and climate change Popp and Boyle, The destruction of habitats and their degradation close to the infrastructure edge effect is thought to be less important for railroads than for highways given the smaller breadth of its infrastructure and lower traffic intensity Dorsey et al.
It has also been suggested that vertebrate mortality from collisions should not be a major problem because of the relatively low frequency of train circulation, although under certain conditions, it can become a relevant issue and perhaps a bigger problem than for roads running parallel to the railways Waller and Servheen, In the case of birds, collision frequency with high speed trains is practically unknown e. Because it's difficult to work within and around HSR networks, scientific knowledge of bird mortality from collisions is very scarce see reviews by Dorsey et al.
The infrastructure is fenced and highly restricted to human access for safety reasons, making it very difficult to run field studies Wells et al.
Also, bird carcasses from train collisions are left in a condition which makes location and identification difficult, especially in the presence of scavenger animals around railways Heske, ; Reyes et al. Besides, the sheer breadth of rail networks and cost of fieldwork make it practically impossible to conduct studies that cover even a small part of a network.
Such work is thus feasible only along short stretches of the line. The preliminary results of an ongoing field study along Information technologies may be critical to overcome the difficulties inherent in estimating HSR bird mortality, specifically the use of on-board systems that record collisions.
Such systems should include i a cabin-front recording camera, ii image and data storage of the instant the events occur location, speed, etc.
Technology advances have already addressed the first two requirements and the emergence of an artificial intelligence system may soon enable automated analysis of the generated images Yu et al.
Зона Тишины была снята -- в секретности больше не было никакой нужды.
While awaiting technology advances, there is, thus far, no experience with applying extant technology to the problem of HSR bird mortality, although some illuminating work has been done in car-dragonfly collisions Furness, For HSRs, on-board systems could solve safety, cost, and spatial extent issues that today preclude even a basic estimation of bird mortality. The objectives of this article are i to demonstrate the use of a high-speed image recording system aboard high-speed trains for analyzing behavior and mortality of colliding birds, and to discuss the potential uses of such a system; and ii to present initial estimates of bird collision mortality and associated data on bird behavior during train approaches, which will be valuable for developing corrective measures.
Materials and Methods We recorded bird collisions with trains using a portable system comprising a high-speed digital camera and a data logger with high-recording-frequency GPS navigation Figure 1.
After a few initial recordings at FPS, we decided to use FPS to achieve clearer images of the collision events. The small camera size enabled us to anchor it with a suction cup to the front windshield of the train without loss of visibility for the train driver.
On-Board Video Recording Unravels Bird Behavior and Mortality Produced by High-Speed Trains
Basic diagram of the collision detection system for a high-speed train. In the train cabin, a high-speed camera was aimed forward, connected to a data logger that records GPS navigation data continuously. In parallel, an observer records on a form the crossing and collision of birds with the train.
In parallel with video recordings, an observer standing in the cabin behind the driver filled out a form to note trip data and observation of birds in front of the train time, location, bird size, number of individuals, and behavior as well as collisions detected from the cabin.
We used these data to focus the review of each video on the points of the line where birds had been detected see below.
Also, for each trip, we photographed the front of the train before and after the trip, to study collision evidences feather remains and blood that are often found on the train bodywork in search of additional collisions not seen from the cabin. All the filming was done between Madrid and Albacete stations of the high-speed line, Part of the line passes near two Special Protection Areas of ornithological interest linked to steppe and rural habitats Natura site ES and marshlands Natura site ES The line also crosses several protected areas of pseudo-steppe habitat interest.
The line includes 20 tunnels between m and 3, m long, 7 of which are more than 1-km long. There are also 30 viaducts between m and 1, m long.
On the same line, trains run between Madrid and Motilla del Palancar km toward Valencia with frequencies of 30 runs Raptor Trading System Inc Columbia MD work days and about 25 on holidays. Trains regularly run during daytime, though some circulations take place at nighttime short before dawn o after dusk, mainly in winter. We conducted the recordings between July and Maywith a total of 66 recording journeys at daytime distributed across seasons 14—20 recordings per season.
Two journeys were done every filming day, one early in the morning beginning around dawn from Madrid and the return trip from Albacete in the late evening. Our sampling was thus balanced between mornings and evenings, though logistic restrictions precluded a fully balanced sampling along the whole day.
The system could not operate at nighttime with the front lights of the train, thus leaving a full gap of knowledge for this situation.
Придя на это место еще через дюжину жизней, я обнаружу, что плитки полностью износились.
All recordings total recording time of 59 h and 55 min were downloaded to a hard drive for analysis. The recordings covered about 14, km of cumulative travel average A single investigator carried out film data extraction by direct viewing each recording at all the points where the cabin observer had indicated the presence of birds about —1, m in each case. In addition, in all the recordings, we reviewed the video for two stretches of the line at km 83—89 and 96— total, For resting birds we noted if they were using elements of the infrastructure wires, poles… or not.
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- Элвин решил проигнорировать вызов; в сущности, у него не было выбора.
In the case of crossings, we differentiated between those that occurred above the catenary or between the rails and the catenary located at a 5. The gap between the rails and the catenary defines the bird-train collision risk area.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH article
In recordings where the birds were at rest at first detection, we reviewed the image sequences to estimate the birds' distance from the train when they started their escape flight FID, flight initiation distance. FID is a common measure of the bird response to human disturbance or predation risk Weston et al.
We used the poles supporting the catenary, which are 60 m apart, as a distance reference. Also, for each sequence, we determined whether or not the observation resulted in a bird collision with the train. To estimate the mortality rate due to collision colliding birds per km traveledwe counted the number of colliding birds directly recorded by the camera on each trip and added the number of collision marks on the front of the train that did not correspond to observed collisions.
We used this Binaarsed valik maaklerid USA sobrad of mortality per km traveled to calculate the annual bird mortality for the two line sections, Madrid-Motilla del Palancar with about 53 runs per day and Motilla del Palancar and Albacete with 25 runs per day.
Temporal patterns of bird observation from the cabin were analyzed through a chi-squared test comparing the number of observations in morning vs.
Temporal patterns were not further analyzed due to the time and spatial restrictions of our recordings uneven Raptor Trading System Inc Columbia MD time and beginning every morning from Madrid. For this analysis we considered only observations from bird groups with more than 10 records in order to work with more reliable estimates of this variable.
Four bird groups were thus considered according to taxonomical and ecological criteria passerines, pigeons and doves, corvids, and mid-sized raptors.
Also, a t-test was carried out to compare the speed of the train in events of bird crossing under the catenary ending in collision vs. Results For 66 journeys, we obtained a total of 1, recorded observations of birds from the cabin Figure 2 distributed throughout the line Supplementary Figure 1.
Noviello, L. Later, in the yearseven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, ineight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP compliance with the European Utilities Requirements EUR and to develop the required alterations. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached.
Of these, 1, were seen directly by the observer and 50 4. Considering all of the raw data, we estimated an average frequency of Observations were Raptor Trading System Inc Columbia MD frequent in the morning journeys than in the afternoon ones Image capture of a recording from a train running at high speed. Lower left quadrant, in white, shows data inserted by the GPS system.
Red arrow shows bird position moments before collision with the train. The recording quality enabled at least a partial taxonomic identification for most of the observations Supplementary Table 1at a species level in We identified a total of 32 different Binaarne valik Automatiseeritud kaubandus species of which Based on the number of observations, passerines predominated with We also detected daytime raptors Falconiformes; In terms of flock size, most bird observations were of singletons
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- Почему двое в одном маленьком звездолете должны вновь навлечь на нас гнев Пришельцев.