She returned to Goucher after the war as professor of astronomy and mathematics, and in she came back to Michigan both as professor of astronomy and staff member of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, of which she became associate director. To investigate how much rein tension young inexperienced horses are willing to accept in order to obtain a food reward; whether the tension acceptance changes during 3 consecutive test days; and whether rein tension correlates with the expression of conflict behaviour and heart rate. The horses applied significantly more tension on the first day mean rein tension:

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Helen Dodson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on 31 December Helen went to Goucher College in nearby Towson with a full scholarship in mathematics. She turned to astronomy under the influence of a legendary teacher, Professor Florence P. Lewis, and she graduated in Funded by grants and private charity, she earned the Ph.

She returned to Goucher after the war as professor of astronomy and mathematics, and in she came back to Michigan both as professor of astronomy and staff member of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, of which she became associate director.

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The horses applied significantly more tension on the first day mean rein tension: The horses showed significantly more conflict behaviour in the short rein treatment. There was no treatment effect on heart rate.

The horses applied the highest rein tension on the first day, and apparently learned to avoid the tension, rather than habituate to it.

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Rein tension correlated with expression of conflict behaviour, indicating that the horses found the tension aversive.