This substance can be found in products with material based on: plastic. The Fame Islands lie in the main deep-water coastal shipping lane.
The study of this period consistently highlights the importance of a series of key, mainly ecclesiastical, sites: Whitby, Hartlepool, Bamburgh, Lindisfarne and the twin monastery of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow. Even a brief look at a map of early medieval Northumbria will reveal that these sites have coastal or estuarine locations Fig. The key importance of maritime power and coastal zones in the early medieval period is well established.
The importance of networks of emporia, wics and other trading centres is attested both historically and archaeologically e.
И Олвин не без грусти решил про себя, что ему никогда и ни с кем не достичь той степени взаимопонимания, которую эти счастливые люди сделали самой основой своего бытия. Когда мобиль пересек саванну -- оборвавшуюся столь внезапно, как если бы существовала какая-то черта, за которой трава просто не могла расти, перед ними открылась гряда низких, сплошь поросших лесом холмов. Хилвар объяснил, что здесь проходит граница главного горного бастиона, оберегающего Лиз.
Hodges ; ; Kramer Most of this work has focused on the southern North Sea zone, including southern and eastern England, northern France, the Low Countries and southern Scandinavia e. Parallel explorations of trade and exchange in western Britain and Ireland have also considered the archaeology of early coastal sites Campbell ; Wooding However, there has been relatively little consideration of the coastal landscapes of Anglo-Saxon England north of the River Humber.
Monastic sites stood overlooking the mouths of most of the major rivers between the Humber and the Forth, and important secular centres, such as Bamburgh, and possibly South Shields lay in very similar locations. A notable exception is Yeavering Northumberland although this site is only around twelve miles from the coastline Hope-Taylor The central position of the North Sea is a means of communication and medium of interaction in Northumbria can be seen in a variety of ways, although direct archaeological evidence for maritime trade along the Northumbrian coast is limited.
Although it is clear that York was a major centre for foreign trade throughout much of the early Middle Ages Mainman ; Kemp There is very little evidence for imported continental ceramics, beyond the southern area of the kingdom. It seems that few imports were being traded on beyond the borders of the kingdom of Deira, and the River Tees appears to form a northern boundary for goods arriving via the southern North Sea trading system.
However, the recent discovery of walrus ivory from excavations at Bamburgh may suggest direct maritime links between Northumbria and northern Scandinavia P. Gething pers.
Despite the relatively slight archaeological evidence for trade, the importance of the sea as a communications route in early medieval Northumbria is attested in documentary evidence.
The shipping lanes also ran north as well as south.
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Bede's Life of St Cuthbert records Cuthbert and two brethren travelling to 'the land of the Niduari' in Pictland, a journey that would have taken him north, passed the northern boundaries of Northumbria and the Firth of Forth to the coast of Fife and beyond VSC 9.
The sea and major rivers could also be used to transport goods, as well as people. Bede's Life of St Cuthbert includes a miracle performed by Cuthbert when he saved monks who had been bringing wood down the Tyne by raft from being swept out to sea VSC 3.
Although there has been interest in the symbolic and ideological elements of early maritime landscapes, there has been relatively little exploration of this aspect of the early medieval coastal zone in Britain e. Westerdahl The only real exception to this has been a consideration of the role of islands as suitable locations for hermitages and places of retreat, drawing on the association of the sea with the desert retreats of the early Christian fathers.
Recent scholars have emphasised the way in which Britain Ulevaade Saxon Trading Systems Ireland were conceived, conceptually and literally, as marginal zones, located on the edge of the known world and distant from the Christian centre of the world, Jerusalem and the Holy Land O'Loughlin ; O'Sullivan34 f.
This was made manifest in early maps of Christendom. The so-called T-0 maps were centred on Jerusalem, whilst Britain was located in the sea that borders the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa. One of the key factors in the representation of Britain and Ireland as liminal areas is the presence of the ocean surrounding the islands. For the early medieval mind, the sea was often imagined as a desert, a remote and terrifying place in which ascetic churchmen could challenge themselves spiritually and physically.
The maritime landscape was a watery version of St. Anthony's Egyptian desert, where devils could be confronted and faith tested away from the more worldly influences of power and secular society O'Loughlin The tradition of coastal and maritime retreat was a particularly strong one in early medieval Irish Christian practice. There was the distinct Irish and Hiberno-Latin literary genre of the immrama 'rowing about'.
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The key structural element was the sea voyage on Ulevaade Saxon Trading Systems further encounters were hung blooding a; b. The practice of locating hermitages or monastic sites offshore was widespread in Ireland and areas influenced by the religious practices of the Kasutage aktsiate valikut church Ulevaade Saxon Trading Systems ; The major Scottish cult centre at Iona was located on an offshore island, and it has been argued convincingly that the choice of Lindisfarne as the site for a monastery by Irish churchmen was governed by both a desire to emulate Iona and a wider urge to link into existing concepts of island asceticism O'Sullivan We thus have two contrasting images of the coastal zone and the sea in early medieval Britain: a thriving and important corridor for communication and trade, and a bleak zone of isolation suitable for hermits and holy men.
Is it possible to reconcile these two seemingly opposed conceptualisations of the sea, one related to the secular world of power and economy and the other linked to the ecclesiastical world? Ulevaade Saxon Trading Systems follows is a more detailed exploration of the coastal archaeology of Northumbria with two brief case studies of areas that have evidence for important secular and ecclesiastical activity: the Holy Island and Bamburgh area in northern Northumberland and Dunbar and Tyningham in east Lothian Scotland.
The Northumbrian coast At its greatest extent the eastern coastline of Northumbria from the mouth of the Humber to the Firth of Forth runs over miles. There is great variation in this coastline. At its southern end the coast has evolved considerably, with the North Sea and the Humber estuary constantly remodelling the coastline of the low-lying Holderness area of east Yorkshire; it is certain Aktsiate asemel aktsiaoptsioonid there has Ulevaade Saxon Trading Systems considerable retreat of the coastline in this area.
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Moving north, the nature of the coast changes, gentle beaches are replaced by clay cliffs reaching a height of m at Flamborough Head. Despite their size, these cliffs are comprised of soft shale and clays and are vulnerable to erosion from the sea.
They do not form a solid barrier.
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In places, such as Whitby, Hartlepool and Scarborough they are broken by river estuaries. Elsewhere, there are small valleys providing access to the coast.
Широкий вход поглотил их, и Хедрон уверенно ступил в золотой полумрак. Олвин никогда прежде не бывал в Зале Совета. Это не было запрещено -- в Диаспаре вообще мало что запрещалось,-- но он, как и все остальные, испытывал перед Советом чувство едва ли не какого-то мистического благоговения.
In Yorkshire, many of these, such as Robin Hood's Bay, Staithes, Runswick Bay and Saltburn have become the site of small fishing villages, which probably grew up in the 11thth centuries AD. However, access to the coast in County Durham is far more limited. The small valleys known as denes provide some access to the sea, but few fishing villages developed along this more exposed coast.
As the coast heads north to the estuaries of the Wear and the Tyne the cliffs rise again and the coast becomes rockier. The Tyne estuary is dominated to the north by the rocky eminence of Tynemouth still surmounted by the ruins of its 12th century monastery. The coastline to the north of this remains rocky, but broken by a number of river mouths including the Blyth and Wansbeck, before becoming increasingly low-lying with developed dune systems and expansive sandy beaches.
This is occasionally broken by rocky outcrops, such as at Dunstanburgh and Bamburgh, where the Whin Sill, a line of tough basaltic rocks projects into the North Sea.